Silicon bridges, how Intel and AMD interconnect CPUs or GPUs

The appearance of two and a half dimensional integrated circuits, 2.5DIC, brought with them the so-called silicon interposers for the intercommunication of the different elements that are part of them. Due to their high cost and complexity, these became a bottleneck for the mass adoption of this type of circuit. Silicon bridges are an alternative that promises to solve these problems.

how Intel and AMD interconnect CPUs or GPUs

The biggest challenge in a system made up of several different processors is communication. However, there are applications where the power required by the hardware prevents placing the architecture on a single chip and a more complex composition has to be drawn, the most common being what we call a 2.5DIC circuit.

The problem with silicon interposers


Due to the complexity of the communication required and the need to save on data transfer, the use of complex communication interfaces is required. The most common trick? The use of vertically placed silicon pathways that run from the interposer and through the chips vertically. This allows you to increase the number of interconnections and make each one go at a low clock speed, which is extremely important since power consumption grows exponentially with clock speed.

The problem with silicon interposers is that they are extremely expensive due to the size of the interposer, since this is really nothing more than a chip on which the rest of the chips are mounted and also has to be large. So the size of the interposer is limited by the manufacturing node grid. With current technology, the maximum size that a silicon interposer can have is 30 x 30 mm, so the chips, both memory and processors, must therefore be smaller than the interposer on which they are mounted. .

All these limitations mean that for a couple of years an alternative has been developed in the form of the so-called silicon bridges, which have been adopted by both Intel and AMD for their present and future 2.5DIC designs.

What are silicon bridges?

Puentes Silicio Intel EMIB

Silicon bridges, silicon bridges in English, are not a future technology , since we have already seen them in products that have been released. Since EMIB technology and Intel use this technology to communicate various chips with each other in their designs based on two and a half dimensions integrated circuits.

The advantage of silicon bridges is that they do not use an entire interposer for communication , but instead create a communication channel between the two chips that are communicating that is located on the substrate of both chips. Something that at first glance may seem like an interposer, but the amount of silicon needed for the intercommunication of the different chips is actually much smaller.

In addition, silicon bridges allow freedom when joining different chips together, creators are not limited by the size of the interposer and there is no interconnection overhead in the interposer that then there are elements that they do not use to communicate. each. It is therefore a much cheaper solution and brings 2.5DIC designs closer to the home market and therefore outside of high performance computing.

How do silicon bridges work?

Kaby Lake-G puente silicio

One of the peculiarities of silicon bridges is that they do not use silicon or TSV paths to intercommunicate with the chips, which greatly reduces costs, since it is not necessary to create a series of vertical paths that crosses the whole chip from top to bottom. The problem with adopting silicon pathways is that it is as complex as building a building. And once it is built, say that you have to run a network of pipes through the middle, which technically means having to drop the building to the ground and do it again.

As with the TSV of silicon interposers, the silicon bridges also intercommunicate vertically, but this intercommunication is done on a bridge that is between both chips and gives enough bandwidth for communication. For example Intel with the launch of its first generation EMIB technology was able to communicate an AMD GPU with its HBM memory using one of the silicon bridges in Kaby Lake-G.

Who is adopting it?

intel Metor Lake

Both Intel and AMD are adopting silicon bridges in the development of future products, although as we have already mentioned, Intel has already adopted them and specifically it was in a joint project with AMD. We are referring to the NUC Hades Canyon and the way in which CPU and GPU were interconnected with each other via a silicon bridge.

The product was not very successful, but Intel has developed their silicon bridge technology, EMIB, during all this time and has turned it into the way to interconnect the different tiles, which is what they call chiplets, in designs so much of the not yet released Intel Xe-HP GPUs , as well as the future Intel Meteor Lake CPU . Which we hope will be on the market by 2023.

Patente GPU Chiplets AMD Puente Silicio

In the case of AMD, on the other hand, the adoption of silicon bridges will be seen in RDNA 3 , whose reference we have thanks to a series of AMD patents where they describe a Gaming GPU composed of several GPU chiplets. Which are seen by the operating system as if they were a single GPU. Interestingly for the range of CDNA 2-based MCM GPUs, AMD uses a common interposer, but it should be noted that the high-performance computing market has costs that can be borne by TSV and the use of silicon interposers.

In general, it is expected that in the coming years, silicon bridges will be adopted by different manufacturers who want to build 2.5DIC solutions for the domestic market, something that we have been waiting for years and that will be one of the elements that will solve the problem of rising costs for the end of Moore’s Law. But, for the moment and to finish, we are left with the following: it is not an unproven technology and therefore we are not talking about something of science fiction.